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Occurrence of Biological Hazards

Viimati uuendatud: 23.11.2016

Occurrence of Biological Hazards

Fields of   Activity Exposed to Hazards



Preventive   Measures

Manufacturing of food   (cheese, yoghurt, salami sausage) or food supplements; bakeries

  • Aspergillus or   yeast fungi; allergy-causing bacteria and mites.
  • Organic grain, milk powder or flour dusts contaminated with biological hazard factors.
  • Botulinum-toxines or alphatoxines.
  • Enclosed   processes.
  • Prevent the   genesis of mist.
  • Quarantine   infected areas.
  • Appropriate   hygiene behaviour.


Providing health care   services

  • Several viral   and bacterial infections like HIV, hepatitises or tuberculosis.
  • Needle-injection   injuries and possible contagion.
  • Safe handling of   infectious samples, faeces, contaminated bed linen and other materials.
  • Safe handling   and cleaning of blood splatter and other bodily fluids.
  • Sufficient   protective gear, gloves, clothes, glasses.
  • Appropriate   hygiene behaviour.



  • Infections and   allergies when handling micro-organisms and cell cultures (such as human   tissues).
  • Accidental   spillages and needle-injection injuries.
  • Micro-biological   safety closets.
  • Preventive   measures decreasing dust and mist.
  • Safe handling   and transport of samples.
  • Appropriate   protective means and hygiene.
  • Contamination   clearance and emergency measures for spillages.
  • Limited access.
  • Installation of   warning signs.

Agriculture, forestry, gardening,   manufacturing animal feed and dried fodder

  • Bacteria, fungi,   mites and viruses transferred from animals, parasites and ticks.
  • Respiratory   problems caused by micro-organisms and mites in the organic dust of grain,   milk powder, flour and spices.
  • Certain allergic   illnesses like “farmer’s lung” and “poultry breeder’s lung”.
  • Preventive   measures decreasing dust and mist.
  • Prevent contact   with infected animals or contaminated devices.

Metal industry, timber   industry

Skin problems and bronchial   asthma due to contact with aspergillus or yeast fungi in industrial processes   like flour milling, timber mass production, and the use of metal and stone   cutting fluids.

  • Local   extraction-ventilation.
  • Regular   maintenance, filtering and cleaning of fluids and mechanisms.
  • Skin protection.
  • Appropriate   hygiene measures.

Work zones with air   conditioning systems and high moisture (e.g. textile industry, paper   manufacturing)

  • Allergy and   respiratory disorders caused by aspergillus or yeast fungi.
  • Legionellosis.
  • Measures   decreasing dust and mist.
  • Regular   maintenance of ventilation, mechanisms and work zone.
  • Limiting the   number of employees.
  • Keeping the tap   water at high temperature.


Archives, museums, libraries

  • Decreasing dust   and mist.
  • Cleaning of   contamination.
  • Adequate   personal protective means.

Processing natural building   materials like clay, straws, reed and timber

Fungi and bacteria caused by   the deterioration of building materials.

  • Decreasing dust   and mist.
  • Adequate   personal protective means and hygiene.


Aspergillus spreading   through air

  • Decreasing dust   and mist.
  • Cleaning of   contamination.
  • Adequate   personal protective means and hygiene.

Waste management

Micro-organisms,   aspergillus, endotoxins, volatile organic substances spreading through air;   hepatitis; HIV

  • Decreasing dust   and mist.
  • Cleaning of   contamination.
  • Adequate   personal protective means and hygiene.


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